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Crime Event Model (CEM)

Release 2022-10-26

This version:
http://crimeanalytics.it/cem-reference/cem.owl
Latest version:
https://w3id.org/CEMontology/
Revision:
1.1
Issued on:
2022-06-14
Authors:
BLIND
Contributors:
BLIND
BLIND
Publisher:
https://w3id.org/BLIND
Download serialization:
JSON-LD RDF/XML N-Triples TTL
License:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Visualization:
Visualize with WebVowl
Cite as:
BLIND
DOI:
10.13140/RG.2.2.18252.90243
Provenance of this page
Ontology Specification

Abstract

This document defines the Crime Event Model (CEM), a data model for the representation of crime events extracted from local newspapers.

Introduction back to ToC

The Crime Event Model can be employed for Crime Analysis purposes.

Extracting crime information from newspapers and enriching them with proper machine-readable semantics is a critical task to help law enforcement agencies at preventing crime, supporting criminal investigations and evaluating the action of law enforcement agencies themselves.

The model is based on the fundamental 5W1H journalistic questions, that are Who, What, When, Where, Why and How.

Another important requirement was the attempt to exploit existing knowledge graphs and ontologies such as the Simple Event Model (SEM) Ontology and the Schema.org data model for interoperability and interconnection.

Crime Event Model (CEM): Description back to ToC

Cross-reference for Crime Event Model (CEM) classes, object properties and data properties back to ToC

This section provides details for each class and property defined by Crime Event Model (CEM).

Classes

Actorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/Actor

Actors are entities that take part in an Event, either actively or passively. Actors do not necessarily have to be sentient. They can also be objects. Actors are a thing, animate or inanimate, physical or non-physical.
has super-classes
Core c
is in range of
hasActor op, hasAuthor op, hasOtherSubject op, hasVictim op
is disjoint with
Event c, Place c, Time c

Articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Article

An article, such as a news article or piece of investigative report. Newspapers and magazines have articles of many different types and this is intended to cover them all.
has super-classes
CreativeWork c
has sub-classes
NewsArticle c

Assaultc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Assault

Assaults and threats
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstPerson c

Burglaryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Burglary

Burglary
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstProperty c

Corec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/Core

The SEM Core class contains all entities that make up the context of an event: Events, Actors, Places, Times. This class is meant to be extended for each application domain.
has sub-classes
Actor c, Event c, Place c, Time c
is disjoint with
DataType c, CreativeWork c, Language c

Corruptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Corruption

Corruption
has super-classes
CrimeWithDeception c

CreativeWorkc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/CreativeWork

The most generic kind of creative work, including books, movies, photographs, software programs, etc.
has super-classes
Thing c
has sub-classes
Article c
is in domain of
inLanguage op
is disjoint with
Language c, Organization c, Person c, Place c, Language c, Core c

CrimeAgainstNaturalEnvironmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeAgainstNaturalEnvironment

Acts against the natural environment
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c

CrimeAgainstPersonc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeAgainstPerson

Acts causing harm or intending to cause harm to the person
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c
has sub-classes
Assault c, Defamation c, Discrimination c, Intimidation c, Slavery c

CrimeAgainstPropertyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeAgainstProperty

Acts against property only
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c
has sub-classes
Burglary c, PropertyDamage c, Theft c

CrimeAgainstPropertyAndPersonc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeAgainstPropertyAndPerson

Acts against property involving violence or threat against a person
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c
has sub-classes
Robbery c

CrimeAgainstPublicOrderc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeAgainstPublicOrder

Acts against public order, authority, and provisions of the State
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c
has sub-classes
TaxEvasion c

CrimeAgainstPublicSafetyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeAgainstPublicSafety

Acts against public safety and state security
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c

CrimeEventc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeEvent

Event subclass to express the crime event.
has super-classes
Event c
has sub-classes
CrimeAgainstNaturalEnvironment c, CrimeAgainstPerson c, CrimeAgainstProperty c, CrimeAgainstPropertyAndPerson c, CrimeAgainstPublicOrder c, CrimeAgainstPublicSafety c, CrimeWithDeception c, Drug c, Homicide c, OtherCrime c, SexualCrime c
is in domain of
hasAuthor op, hasOtherSubject op, hasVictim op, how dp, success dp, why dp

CrimeProceedsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeProceeds

Acts involving proceeds of crime
has super-classes
CrimeWithDeception c
has sub-classes
MoneyLaundering c

CrimeWithDeceptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/CrimeWithDeception

Acts involving fraud, deception or corruption
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c
has sub-classes
Corruption c, CrimeProceeds c, Forgery c, Fraud c

DataTypec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/DataType

The basic data types such as Integers, Strings, etc.
has sub-classes
Date c, DateTime c, Text c
is disjoint with
Core c

Datec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Date

A date value in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601">ISO 8601 date format</a>.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/Date
has super-classes
DataType c
is disjoint with
DateTime c, Text c

DateTimec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/DateTime

A combination of date and time of day in the form [-]CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss[Z|(+|-)hh:mm] (see Chapter 5.4 of ISO 8601).
Is defined by
https://schema.org/DateTime
has super-classes
DataType c
is disjoint with
Date c, Text c

Defamationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Defamation

Defamation or insult
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstPerson c

Discriminationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Discrimination

Discrimination
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstPerson c

Drugc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Drug

Acts involving controlled drugs or other psychoactive substances
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c

Eventc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/Event

Events are things that happen. This comprises everything from historical events to web site sessions and mythical journeys. Event is the central class of SEM.
has super-classes
Core c
has sub-classes
CrimeEvent c
is in domain of
eventProperty op, has Time op, has subevent op, hasActor op, hasBeginTimestamp dp, hasEndTimestamp dp, hasPlace op, hasTimestamp dp, subevent of op
is in range of
has subevent op, subevent of op
is disjoint with
Actor c, Place c, Time c

Forgeryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Forgery

Forgery/counterfeiting
has super-classes
CrimeWithDeception c

Fraudc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Fraud

Fraud
has super-classes
CrimeWithDeception c

Homicidec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Homicide

Acts leading to death or intending to cause death
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c

Intimidationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Intimidation

Acts intended to induce fear or emotional distress
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstPerson c

Languagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Language

Natural languages such as Spanish, Tamil, Hindi, English, etc. Formal language code tags expressed in BCP 47 can be used via the alternateName property. The Language type previously also covered programming languages such as Scheme and Lisp, which are now best represented using ComputerLanguage.
has super-classes
Thing c
is disjoint with
CreativeWork c, Organization c, Person c, Place c, CreativeWork c, Core c

MoneyLaunderingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/MoneyLaundering

Money laundering
has super-classes
CrimeProceeds c

NewsArticlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/NewsArticle

A NewsArticle is an article whose content reports news, or provides background context and supporting materials for understanding the news.<br/><br/> A more detailed overview of <a href="/docs/news.html">schema.org News markup</a> is also available.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/NewsArticle
has super-classes
Article c

Organizationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Organization

An organization such as a school, NGO, corporation, club, etc.
has super-classes
Thing c
is disjoint with
CreativeWork c, Language c, Person c, Place c

OtherCrimec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/OtherCrime

Other criminal acts not elsewhere classified
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c

Personc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Person

A person (alive, dead, undead, or fictional).
has super-classes
Thing c
is disjoint with
CreativeWork c, Language c, Organization c, Place c

Placec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Place

Entities that have a somewhat fixed, physical extension.
is equivalent to
Place c
has super-classes
Thing c

Placec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/Place

Places are locations where an Event happens. They do not need to be physical places and hence do not necessarily need coordinates. Neither do they need to have any significance apart from them being the location of an Event.
has super-classes
Core c
is in range of
hasPlace op
is disjoint with
CreativeWork c, Language c, Organization c, Person c, Actor c, Event c, Time c

PropertyDamagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/PropertyDamage

Property damage
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstProperty c

Robberyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Robbery

Robbery
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstPropertyAndPerson c
is in domain of
hasWeapon op

SexualCrimec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/SexualCrime

Injurious acts of a sexual nature
has super-classes
CrimeEvent c
has sub-classes
SexualExploitation c, SexualViolence c

SexualExploitationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/SexualExploitation

Sexual exploitation
has super-classes
SexualCrime c

SexualViolencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/SexualViolence

Sexual violence
has super-classes
SexualCrime c

Slaveryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Slavery

Slavery and exploitation
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstPerson c

TaxEvasionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/TaxEvasion

Acts contrary to public revenue or regulatory provisions
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstPublicOrder c

Textc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Text

Data type: Text.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/Text
has super-classes
DataType c
has sub-classes
URL c
is disjoint with
Date c, DateTime c

Theftc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/Theft

Theft
has super-classes
CrimeAgainstProperty c
is in domain of
has stolen object(s) op

Thingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/Thing

The most generic type of item.
is equivalent to
thing c
has sub-classes
CreativeWork c, Language c, Organization c, Person c, Place c

Timec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/Time

Time contains symbolic representations of when an Event took place. Time instances do not necessarily need to have a timestamp associated with them. The Time class exists to represent semantics of time, e.g. that one thing happens before another, even though the exact timestamps are unknown.
has super-classes
Core c
is in range of
has Time op
is disjoint with
Actor c, Event c, Place c

URLc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/URL

Data type: URL.
has super-classes
Text c

Object Properties

articleBodyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/articleBody

The actual body of the article.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/articleBody
has domain
Article c
has range
Text c or URL c

containedInPlaceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/containedInPlace

The basic containment relation between a place and one that contains it.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/containedInPlace
has domain
Place c
has range
Place c or Text c or URL c
is inverse of
containsPlace op

containsPlaceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/containsPlace

Inverse property of containedInPlace.
has domain
Place c or Text c or URL c
has range
Place c
is inverse of
containedInPlace op

datePublishedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/datePublished

Date of first broadcast/publication.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/datePublished
has domain
CreativeWork c
has range
Date c or DateTime c

eventPropertyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/eventProperty

Event properties connect Events to other SEM Core entities.
has sub-properties
has Time op, has subevent op, hasActor op, hasPlace op
has domain
Event c
has range
class c

has stolen object(s)op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/hasStolenObject

Property to express the stolen object(s) in a theft.
has domain
Theft c
has range
thing c

has subeventop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/hasSubEvent

Has subevent connects an Event to other Events that belong to it. This is a very generic property that does not mean the subevents fully define the superconcept or that there is any causal relationship.
has super-properties
eventProperty op
has domain
Event c
has range
Event c
is inverse of
subevent of op

has Timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/hasTime

Has time is used to indicate at which time an Event took place or when a property under the Temporary Constraint is valid. Has time points to a symbolic representation of time, which allows semantic relations between time resources. (see http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-time/)
has super-properties
eventProperty op
has domain
Event c
has range
Time c

hasActorop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/hasActor

Has actor is used to state which Actors or Objects participate in an Event.
has super-properties
eventProperty op
has sub-properties
hasAuthor op, hasOtherSubject op, hasVictim op
has domain
Event c
has range
Actor c

hasAuthorop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/hasAuthor

Used to state the author(s) of the crime event.
has super-properties
hasActor op
has domain
CrimeEvent c
has range
Actor c

hasOtherSubjectop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/hasOtherSubject

Used to state other subject(s) involved in the crime event (e.g., law enforcement agencies).
has super-properties
hasActor op
has domain
CrimeEvent c
has range
Actor c

hasPlaceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/hasPlace

Has place is used to state in which Place(s) an Event happened. Coordinates can be attached to the Place with the W3C Geospatial Vocabulary (http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/geo/XGR-geo-20071023/).
has super-properties
eventProperty op
has domain
Event c
has range
Place c

hasVictimop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/hasVictim

Used to state the victim(s) of the crime event.
has super-properties
hasActor op
has domain
CrimeEvent c
has range
Actor c

hasWeaponop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/hasWeapon

Property to express the weapon(s) used in a robbery.
has domain
Robbery c
has range
thing c

headlineop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/headline

Headline of the article.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/headline
has domain
CreativeWork c
has range
Text c or URL c

inLanguageop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/inLanguage

The language of the content or performance or used in an action. Please use one of the language codes from the <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47">IETF BCP 47 standard</a>. See also <a class="localLink" href="http://schema.org/availableLanguage">availableLanguage</a>.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/inLanguage
has domain
CreativeWork c
has range
Language c or Text c or URL c

mentionsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/mentions

Indicates that the CreativeWork contains a reference to, but is not necessarily about a concept.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/mentions
has domain
CreativeWork c
has range
Text c or Thing c or URL c or thing c

publisherop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/publisher

The publisher of the creative work.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/publisher
has domain
CreativeWork c
has range
Organization c or Person c or Text c or URL c

subClassOfop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#subClassOf

The subject is a subclass of a class.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema
has sub-properties
subtype of op
has domain
class c
has range
class c

subevent ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/subEventOf

Inverse property of hasSubEvent
has domain
Event c
has range
Event c
is inverse of
has subevent op

subtype ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/subTypeOf

The inverse property of hasSubType.
has super-properties
subClassOf op
has domain
class c
has range
class c

urlop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://schema.org/hasurl

URL of the item.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/url
has domain
Thing c
has range
Text c or URL c

Data Properties

hasBeginTimestampdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/hasBeginTimeStamp

Has begin timestamp is used to indicate the beginning of a time interval. Omitting the hasBeginTimeStamp while stating a hasEndTimeStamp is interpreted as an open ended interval.
has super-properties
hasTimestamp dp
has domain
Event c
has range
date time stamp

hasEndTimestampdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/hasEndTimeStamp

Has end timestamp is used to indicate the end of a time interval. Omitting the hasEndTimeStamp while stating a hasBeginTimeStamp is interpreted as an open ended interval.
has super-properties
hasTimestamp dp
has domain
Event c
has range
date time stamp

hasTimestampdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/2009/11/sem/hasTimeStamp

Has timestamp is used to put time indicators on any individual. It is the most common way to state when an Event took place. There are subproperties of hasTimeStamp to represent time intervals and uncertain time intervals. If the exact moment is not known, but it is necessary to specify a certain time, use hasTime instead. All of these properties are also used to indicate the time at which a property under the Temporary Constraint is valid.
has sub-properties
hasBeginTimestamp dp, hasEndTimestamp dp
has domain
Event c
has range
date time stamp

howdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/how

Property to express how the crime event has been accomplished.
has domain
CrimeEvent c
has range
string

successdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/success

Property to manifest if the crime event has been successful.

has characteristics: functional

has domain
CrimeEvent c
has range
boolean

whydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://crimeanalytics.it/cem/why

Property to express the crime event motive.
has domain
CrimeEvent c
has range
string

Annotation Properties

bibliographic citationap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/bibliographicCitation

broad matchap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broadMatch

close matchap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#closeMatch

contributorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/contributor

createdap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/created

creatorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/description

exact matchap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#exactMatch

identifierap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/identifier

issuedap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/issued

licenseap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/license

modifiedap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified

nameap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name

narrow matchap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrowMatch

preferred namespace prefixap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/vann/preferredNamespacePrefix

preferred namespace uriap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/vann/preferredNamespaceUri

provenanceap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/provenance

publisherap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/publisher

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/title

Named Individuals

b l i n dni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/BLIND

belongs to
organization c

Crime Event Model (CEM)ni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/CEMontology

belongs to
vocabulary c

Legend back to ToC

c: Classes
op: Object Properties
dp: Data Properties
ni: Named Individuals

Acknowledgments back to ToC

The authors would like to thank Silvio Peroni for developing LODE, a Live OWL Documentation Environment, which is used for representing the Cross Referencing Section of this document and Daniel Garijo for developing Widoco, the program used to create the template used in this documentation.